1. Įfangi Sundabrautar - Athugasemdir Ķbśasamtaka Hįaleitis noršur 16. įgśst 2007

Reykjavķk 16. įgśst 2007

1. įfangi Sundabrautar

Helga J. Bjarnadóttir
Lķnuhönnun hf. verkfręšistofa

Athugasemdir viš drög aš tillögu aš matsįętlun vegna Sundabrautar 1. įfanga : Sundagöng og eyjagöng (jśnķ 2007).

Afleidd įhrif į sjónręnna žętta, hljóšvist og loftgęši ķbśa ķ hverfum ašliggjandi aš Kringlumżrarbraut (Hįaleitis- og Hlķšahverfi) vegna aukinnar umferšar um Kringlumżrarbraut į rekstrartķma Sundagangna/Sundabrautar.

Ef fyrirhuguš Sundagöng/Sundabraut verša tekin ķ notkun er fyrirséš aš umferš um Kringlumżrarbraut eigi eftir aš aukast žeirra vegna. Eins og fram kemur ķ gögnum um Sundabraut 1. er įętlaš aš ķ upphafi muni um 10.000 bķlar aka um Sundagöng į sólarhring
og aš fjöldi žeirra aukist ķ 33.000 bķla.

Af fyrirliggjandi gögnum er ekki annaš aš sjį en aš meginstraumur umferšar ķ og śr göngunum į höfušborgarsvęšinu verši viš muna ganganna. Annar munni gangnanna veršur stašsettur ekki fjarri gatnamótum Sębrautar og Kringlumżrarbrautar. Bśast mį viš aš stór hluti žeirrar umferšar sem um žennan muna fari muni fara um Kringlumżrarbraut.

Umferšarįlag į Kringlumżrarbraut er žegar 80-100% af flutningsgetu. Spįš er aš umferšarįlag mun aukast um 10 – 20 žśs. bķla fram til įrsins 2012 į helstu stofnleišum og verša meiri en žęr geta annaš. Umferš um Kringlumżrarbraut mun aukast enn frekar viš tilkomu Sundagangna/Sundabrautar og bętast viš žęr tugi žśsunda bifreiša sem aka žegar um Kringlumżrarbraut aka į hverjum sólarhring.

Fyrirséš er aš meš aukinni umferš um Kringlumżrarbraut eykst sjónręn mengun, hljóšvist og loftgęši versna fyrir ķbśa ķ nęrliggjandi hverfum (Hįaleitis- og Hlķšahverfi). Žannig munu lķfsskilyrši ķbśa sem bśa viš eša ķ nįlęgš viš Kringlumżrarbraut (innan viš 500 m) versna meš aukinni umferš um Kringlumżrarbraut og leiša til verri heilsu žeirra. Hér meš talin ótalinn fjölda barna og unglinga į leikskóla- og grunnskólaaldri.

Fjöldi leikskóla og grunnskóla eru stašsettir ķ um 200 – 300 m. fjarlęgš frį götunni.

Ķbśasamtök Hįaleitis noršur fara žess į leit aš afleiddar afleišingar aukinnar umferšar um Kringlumżrarbraut vegna umferšar sem tengist  Sundagöng/Sundabraut  verši rannsakašar meš tilliti til umhverfisįhrifa į heilsu ķbśa sem bśa ķ innan viš 500 m. fjarlęgš frį Kringlumżarbraut.

Ķbśasamtök Hįaleitis noršur fara einnig fram į žaš aš sérstaklega verši lagt mat į įhrifa af aukinni umferš um Kringlumżrarbraut (vegna umferšar til og frį Sundabraut) meš tilliti til mengunar og įhrifa hennar į heilsu barna og unglinga sem bśa innan viš 500 m. fjarlęgš frį götunni og eša sękja nįm ķ leikskóla og grunnskóla sem eru stašsettir eru ķ hverfum sem liggja aš Kringlumżrarbraut.
Į undanförnum įratugum (og sérstaklega undanfarin įr) hafa sjónir manna beinst aš įhrifum mengunar frį umferš į heilsu žeirra sem bśa viš eša nįlęgt miklum umferšarmannvirkjum.

Žekking į žessu sviši fer stöšugt fram og sķfellt bętist viš ķ žekkingarbrunn um įhrifa hennar į heilsu fólks, žar meš talinna mešgöngu kvenna, į heilsu nżbura, įhrifa į lungnažroska barna og unglinga, į öndunarfęrasjśkdóma barna, įhrifa į heilsu hjartasjśklinga o.fl. Įhrifa af völdum mengunar į heilsu fólks er gjarnan skipt ķ įhrifa til skamms tķma og langtķmaįhrifa. Įhrifa į heilsu getur veriš allt frį žvķ aš valda einstaklingum óžęgindum til žess aš vera lķfshęttuleg og leiša til dauša.

Til stušnings ósk okkar į aš rannsakašar verši afleiddar afleišingar fyrirhugašra Sundabrautar/Sundagangna vitnum viš ķ nokkrar rannsóknir sem geršar hafa veriš į įhrifum mengunar frį umferš į heilsu fólks og žį sérstaklega barna og birst hafa ķ višurkenndum vķsindaritum. Viš leifum okkur aš vitna til śtdrįtta greinanna en hęgt er aš nįlgast greinarnar į slóšum sem fylgja.  

Fyrsti śtdrįttur;
um įhrif mengunar frį umferš į žroska lungna į börnum į aldrinum 10 – 18 įra.

Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort studyW James Gauderman, Hita Vora, Rob McConnell, Kiros Berhane, et al. The Lancet. London: Feb 17-Feb 23, 2007. Vol. 369, Iss. 9561; pg. 571, 7 pgs
Abstract (Summary)
Whether local exposure to major roadways adversely affects lung-function growth during the period of rapid lung development that takes place between 10 and 18 years of age is unknown. This study investigated the association between residential exposure to traffic and 8-year lung-function growth. In this prospective study, 3677 children (mean age 10 years [SD 0.44]) participated from 12 southern California communities that represent a wide range in regional air quality. Children were followed up for 8 years, with yearly lung-function measurements recorded. For each child, we identified several indicators of residential exposure to traffic from large roads. Regression analysis was used to establish whether 8-year growth in lung function was associated with local traffic exposure, and whether local traffic effects were independent of regional air quality. Children who lived within 500 m of a freeway (motorway) had substantial deficits in 8-year growth of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV^sub 1^, -81 mL, p=0.01 [95% CI -143 to -18]) and maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MMEF, -127 mL/s, p=0.03 [-243 to -11), compared with children who lived at least 1500 m from a freeway. Joint models showed that both local exposure to freeways and regional air pollution had detrimental, and independent, effects on lung-function growth. Pronounced deficits in attained lung function at age 18 years were recorded for those living within 500 m of a freeway, with mean percent-predicted 97.0% for FEV^sub 1^ (p=0.013, relative to >1500 m [95% CI 94.6-99.4]) and 93.4% for MMEF (p=0.006 [95% CI 89.1-97.7]). Local exposure to traffic on a freeway has adverse effects on children's lung development, which are independent of regional air quality, and which could result in important deficits in attained lung function in later life.
Slóš; http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1222795671&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1187178774&clientId=58027


Annar śtdrįttur;
mengum frį umferš nęrri mikilli umferš
Traffic-related Air Pollution near Busy Roads
The East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study
Janice J. Kim, Svetlana Smorodinsky, Michael Lipsett, Brett C. Singer, Alfred T. Hodgson and Bart Ostro
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland; and Atmospheric Sciences Department and Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California
Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Bart Ostro, Ph.D., Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 1515 Clay Street, 16th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612. E-mail: bostro@oehha.ca.gov 
Recent studies, primarily in Europe, have reported associations between respiratory symptoms and residential proximity to traffic; however, few have measured traffic pollutants or provided information about local air quality. We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2001. Information on current bronchitis symptoms and asthma, home environment, and demographics was obtained by parental questionnaire (n = 1,109). Concentrations of traffic pollutants (particulate matter, black carbon, total nitrogen oxides [NOX], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) were measured at 10 school sites during several seasons. Although pollutant concentrations were relatively low, we observed differences in concentrations between schools nearby versus those more distant (or upwind) from major roads. Using a two-stage multiple-logistic regression model, we found associations between respiratory symptoms and traffic-related pollutants. Among those living at their current residence for at least 1 year, the adjusted odds ratio for asthma in relationship to an interquartile difference in NOX was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.14). Thus, we found spatial variability in traffic pollutants and associated differences in respiratory symptoms in a region with good air quality. Our findings support the hypothesis that traffic-related pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms in children.
Slóš; http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/reprint/170/5/520


Žrišji śtdrįttur;
mengun frį umferš og eyrnabólgur

Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Otitis MediaMichael Brauer, Ulrike Gehring, Bert Brunekreef, Johan de Jongste, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. Research Triangle Park: Sep 2006. Vol. 114, Iss. 9; pg. 1414, 5 pgs
 »  Jump to indexing (document details)
Full Text (5238  words)
Copyright National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Sep 2006
[Headnote]
BACKGROUND: Otitis media is one of the most common infections in young children. Although exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a known risk factor associated with otitis media, little information is available regarding the potential association with air pollution.
OBJECTIVE: We set out to study the relationship between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and otitis media in two birth cohorts.
METHODS: Individual estimates of outdoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants-nitrogen dioxide, fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 urn (PM^sub 2.5^)], and elemental carbon-were calculated for home addresses of approximately 3,700 and 650 infants from birth cohort studies in the Netherlands and Germany, respectively. Air pollution exposure was analyzed in relation to physician diagnosis of otitis media in the first 2 years of life.
RESULTS: Odds ratios (adjusted for known major risk factors) for otitis media indicated positive associations with traffic-related air pollutants. An increase in 3 µg/m^sup 3^ PM^sub 2.5^, 0.5 µg/m^sup 3^ elemental carbon, and 10 µg/m^sup 3^ NO^sub 2^ was associated with odds ratios of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.27), 1.10 (1.00-1.22), and 1.14 (1.03-1.27) in the Netherlands and 1.24 (0.84-1.83), 1.10 (0.86-1.41), and 1.14 (0.87-1.49) in Germany, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an association between exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and the incidence of otitis media. Given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution exposure and the importance of otitis media to children's health, these findings have significant public health implications.

Slóš; http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?index=1&did=1134273641&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1187179276&clientId=58027


Fjórši śtdrįttur;
loftmengun og heilbrigši ķ öndunarfęrum barna

Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health: A Case-Crossover Study in Australia and New ZealandAdrian G Barnett, Gail M Williams, Joel Schwartz, Anne H Neller, et al. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. New York: Jun 1, 2005. Vol. 171, Iss. 11; pg. 1272, 7 pgs
 »  Jump to indexing (document details)
Full Text (4683  words)
Copyright American Thoracic Society Jun 1, 2005
[Headnote]
Rationale: The strength of the association between outdoor air pollution and hospital admissions in children has not yet been well defined. Objectives: To estimate the impact of outdoor air pollution on respiratory morbidity in children after controlling for the confounding effects of weather, season, and other pollutants. Methods: The study used data on respiratory hospital admissions in children (three age groups: < 1, 1-4, and 5-14 years) for five cities in Australia and two in New Zealand. Time series of daily numbers of hospital admissions were analyzed using the case-crossover method; the results from cities were combined using a random-effects metaanalysis. Measurements and Main Results: Significant increases across the cities were observed for hospital admissions in children for pneumonia and acute bronchitis (0, 1-4 years), respiratory disease (0, 1-4, 5-14 years), and asthma (5-14 years). These increases were found for particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM^sub 2.5^) and less than 10 µm (PM^sub 10^), nephelometry, NO^sub 2^, and SO^sub 2^. The largest association found was a 6.0% increase in asthma admissions (5-14years) in relation to a 5.1-ppb increase in 24-hour NO^sub 2^. Conclusions: This study found strong and consistent associations between outdoor air pollution and short-term increases in childhood hospital admissions. A number of different pollutants showed significant associations, and these were distinct from any temperature (warm or cool) effects.

Slóš; http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?index=1&did=848860561&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1187179569&clientId=58027

 

Fimmti śtdrįttur;
um įhrif loftmengunar į öndunarfęri og ofnęmis ķ börnum

Clinical & Experimental Allergy
Volume 35 Issue 10 Page 1279-1287, October 2005
Long-term exposure to background air pollution related to respiratory and allergic health in schoolchildren
C. Pénard-Morand, D. Charpin, C. Raherison, C. Kopferschmitt, D. Caillaud, F. Lavaud, I. Annesi-Maesano (2005)
Background The impact of air pollution on asthma and allergies still remains a debate.
Objective Our cross-sectional study was intended to analyse the associations between long-term exposure to background air pollution and atopic and respiratory outcomes in a large population-based sample of schoolchildren.
Methods Six thousand six hundred and seventy-two children aged 9–11 years recruited from 108 randomly schools in six French cities underwent a clinical examination including a skin prick test (SPT) to common allergens, exercise-induced bronchial reactivity (EIB) and skin examination for flexural dermatitis. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis was assessed by a standardized health questionnaire completed by the parents. Three-year-averaged concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, SO2, PM10 and O3) were calculated at children&#39; schools using measurements of background monitoring stations.
Results After adjusting for confounders, EIB, lifetime asthma and lifetime AR were found to be positively related to an increase in the exposure to SO2, PM10 and O3. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) per increase of 5 μg/m3 of SO2 was 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.15–1.66) for EIB and 1.19 (1.00–1.41) for lifetime asthma. The aOR for lifetime AR per increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM10 was 1.32 (CI=1.04–1.68). Moreover, SPT positivity was associated with O3 (aOR=1.34; CI=1.24–1.46). Associations with past year symptoms were consistent, even if not always statistically significant. Results persisted in long-term resident (current address for at least 8 years) children. However, no consistent positive association was found with NO2.
Conclusions A moderate increase in long-term exposure to background ambient air pollution was associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory and atopic indicators in children.


Slóš; http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02336.x


Sjötti śtdrįttur;
um įhirf loftmengunar į skólabörn

Science of The Total Environment
Volume 368, Issues 2-3, 15 September 2006, Pages 565-573
Long-term personal exposure  to traffic-related air pollution among school children, a validation study
Sofie Van Roosbroecka,  ,  , Janine Wichmannb, Nicole A.H. Janssenc, Gerard Hoeka, Joop H. van Wijnend, Erik Lebretc and Bert Brunekreefa, e
aInstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
bSchool of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria, South Africa
cCenter for Environmental Health Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands
dDepartment of Environmental Medicine, Municipal Health Service Amsterdam (GG&GD), The Netherlands
eJulius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
Received 7 December 2005;  revised 10 March 2006;  accepted 23 March 2006.  Available online 2 May 2006.

Abstract
Several recent studies suggest an association between  long-term exposure  to traffic-related air pollution and health. Most studies use indicators of  exposure  such as outdoor air pollution or traffic density on the street of residence. Little information is available about the validity of these measurements as an estimate of  long-term personal exposure  to traffic-related air pollution. In this pilot study, we assessed outdoor and  personal exposure  to traffic-related air pollution in children living in homes on streets with different degree of traffic intensity.
The  personal exposure  of 14 children aged 9–12 years to ‘soot’, NOx (NO and NO2) was assessed in Amsterdam between March and June 2003. Each child&#39;s  personal exposure  was monitored during four repeated 48-h periods. Concurrently, in- and outdoor NOx measurements were carried out at the school and at the home of each participating child. Measurements were supplemented by a questionnaire on time activity patterns and possible indoor sources. Flow-controlled battery operated pumps in a made-to-fit backpack were used to sample  personal exposure  to ‘soot’, determined from the reflectance of PM2.5 filters.  Exposure  to NOx was assessed using Ogawa passive samplers. Children living near busy roads were found to have a 35% higher  personal exposure  to ‘soot’ than children living at an urban background location, despite that all children attended the same school that was located away from busy roads. Smaller contrasts in  personal exposure  were found for NO (14%), NO2 (15%) and NOx (14%). This finding supports the use of ‘living near a busy road’ as a measure of  exposure  in epidemiological studies on the effects of traffic-related air pollution in children.
Slóš; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V78-4JVTBMR-2&_user=1829816&_coverDate=09%2F15%2F2006&_alid=609225124&_rdoc=11&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=5836&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=64&_acct=C000039758&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1829816&md5=6dc0c215f72184debe37198f5fa1cd8c
Einnig bendum viš į eftirfarandi heimildir višurkenndra stofnanna og samtaka til stušnings erindi okkar en ķ žessum heimildum er aš finna nįnari upplżsingar um almenn įhrif mengunar en sérstaklega įhrif mengunar į börn.

Effects of Air Pollution on Children“s Health and Development
Slóš;
http://www.euro.who.int/document/E86575.pdf

Health Aspects of Air Pollution; Results from the WHO Project
“Systematic Review of Health Aspects of Air Pollution in Euriope”
Slóš;
http://www.euro.who.int/document/E83080.pdf

The Health Impacts of Urban Sprawl; Air Pollution
Slóš; http://www.ocfp.on.ca/local/files/Urban%20Sprawl/UrbanSprawl-AirPollution.pdf

Ķbśasamtök Hįaleitis noršur benda į aš mun fleiri rannsóknir eru til um žetta efni sem og įhrif mengunar frį umferš į heilsu annarra hópa s.s. į žungašra kvenna, nżbura, hjartveikra o.fl. og bendum yfirvöldum į aš kynna sér žęr frekar.

Reykjavķk 16. įgśst 2007,
fyrir hönd stjórnar Ķbśasamtaka Hįaleitis noršur

Birgir Björnsson
- formašur


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